Colonoscopy (/ˌkɒləˈnɒskəpi/) or coloscopy (/kəˈlɒskəpi/) is the endoscopic examination of the large bowel and the distal part of the small bowel with a CCD camera or a fiber optic camera on a flexible tube passed through the anus. It can provide a visual diagnosis (e.g., ulceration, polyps) and grants the opportunity for biopsy or removal of suspected colorectal cancer lesions.
Colonoscopy can remove polyps as small as one millimetre or less. Once polyps are removed, they can be studied with the aid of a microscope to determine if they are precancerous or not. It can take up to 15 years for a polyp to turn cancerous.
Before the procudere, let your doctor know about any special medical conditions you have, including the following:
Pregnancy (for women)
Heart conditions Allergies to any medications
If you have diabetes or take medications that may affect bloodclotting; adjustments to these medications may be required before the colonoscopy.
A gastroscopy is a procedure where a thin, flexible tube called an end oscope is used to look inside the oesophagus (gullet), stomach and first part of the small intestine (duodenum).
A gastroscopy used to check symptoms or confirm a diagnosis is known as a diagnostic gastroscopy. A gastroscopy used to treat a condition is known as a therapeutic gastroscopy.
A gastroscopy can be used to:
investigate problems such as difficulty swallowing (dysphagia) or persistent abdominal (tummy) pain
diagnose conditions such as stomach ulcers or gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD)
treat conditions such as bleeding ulcers, a blockage in the oesophagus, non-cancerous growths (polyps) or small cancerous tumours
Basic Ultrasound Disorders
Urea Breath Test (H - Pylori)
What is the urea breath test?
The urea breath test (UBT) is a test for diagnosing the presence of a bacterium, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in the stomach. H. pylori causes inflammation, ulcers, and atrophy of the stomach. The test also may be used to demonstrate that H. pylori has been eliminated by treatment with antibiotics.
What is the basis of this test?
The urea breath test is based on the ability of H. pylori to break down urea, a chemical made up of nitrogen and carbon, into carbon dioxide which then is absorbed from the stomach and eliminated in the breath. (Urea normally is produced by the body from excess or "waste" nitrogen-containing chemicals and then eliminated in the urine.)