Kidney & Liver Concerns

CT Abdomen

What are some common uses of the procedure?

  • This procedure is typically used to help diagnose the cause of abdominal or pelvic pain and diseases of the internal organs, small bowel and colon, such as:

  • infections such as appendicitis, pyelonephritis or infected fluid collections, also known as abscesses.

  • inflammatory bowel disease such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease, pancreatitis or liver cirrhosis.

  • cancers of the liver,

  • kidneys, pancreas, ovaries and bladder as well as lymphoma. kidney and bladder stones.

  • abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), injuries to abdominal organs such as the spleen, liver, kidneys or other internal organs in cases of trauma.


CT scanning of the abdomen/pelvis is also performed to:

  • guide biopsies and other procedures such as abscess drainages and minimally invasive tumor treatments.

  • plan for and assess the results of surgery, such as organ transplants.

  • stage, plan and properly administer radiation treatments for tumors as well as monitor response to chemotherapy.


Ultrasound Abdomen


Ultrasound scans use high frequency sound waves to capture images and video of the inside of the body. Abdominal ultrasounds to help your doctor see the organs and structures inside the abdomen.


Ultrasound images are captured in real time. They’re able to show the structure and movement of internal organs as well as blood flowing through blood vessels. This test is the most commonly used one to view and examine the fetus in pregnant women, but it has many other clinical uses as well.


Abdominal ultrasounds are used to check the major organs in the abdominal cavity. These organs include the gallbladder, kidneys, liver, pancreas, and spleen.


Liver Function Test

What are the most common liver function tests?

Liver function tests are used to measure specific enzymes and proteins in your blood. Depending on the test, either higher- or lower-than-normal levels of these enzymes or proteins can indicate a problem with your liver.

Why do I need a liver function test?

Liver tests can help determine if your liver is working correctly. The liver performs a number of vital bodily functions, such as:

  • removing contaminants from your blood

  • converting nutrients from the foods you eat

  • storing minerals and vitamins

  • regulating blood clotting

  • producing proteins, enzymes, and bile

  • making factors that fight infection

  • removing bacteria from your blood processing substances that could harm your body

  • maintaining hormone balances


What is the clinical course after a HCV infection?

The onset of infection is often unrecognised and the early course is generally indolent. The natural history of HCV infection is dependant upon on geography, alcohol use, viral characteristics ( different genetic types, viral load ), co-infection with other viruses and some as yet unidentified factors.


After exposure to the virus, detectable viral genetic material called HCV RNA is seen in the blood in 1 - 3 weeks. Nearly all patients show evidence of liver injury because blood tests for liver enzymes become elevated. However, only 25% patients manifest symptoms like lassitude, anorexia and some became jaundiced (yellowing of eyes and skin). Rapid progression to liver failure due to fulminant hepatitis is a rare occurrence.


The majority of patients (85%) fail to clear the virus within 6 months and develop chronic hepatitis C. These patients are relatively well in the first 2 decades after acquiring the infection. However in 20% of these carriers, there may be intermittent symptoms of fatigue and malaise.

Hepatitis C


How is Hepatitis A transmitted?

Hepatitis A is prevalent in areas where there are poor sanitary conditions. Most infections are spread by food or drinks contaminated by faeculent materials, either through poor personal hygiene or by sewage eg. contaminated raw shell fish. Rarely hepatitis A can be transmitted by intravenous drug usage, blood products and amongst practising homosexual men

How is hepatitis B transmitted?

  • Transmitted through body secretions like blood, semen, saliva

  • Babies of hepatitis B carrier mothers are infected at the time of birth or soon after birth.

  • Transmission in childhood can occur through shared utensils like toothbrushes and razors.

  • Hepatitis B infections can be acquired through blood transfusions if the blood donor is not properly screened for the infection.

  • HBV infections can also be acquired through acupuncture, tattooing, ear piercing, manicures and dental treatment if non-sterile instruments are used.

  • Healthcare workers like doctors, dentists and nurses are at risk of finger-prick injuries which also transmit HBV infection.

  • Unprotected sexual intercourse promotes HBV transmission. 

Hepatitis A & B