Prolactin (PRL), also known as luteotropic hormone or luteotropin, is a protein that is best known for its role in enabling mammals, usually females, to produce milk. It is influential in over 300 separate processes in various vertebrates, including humans.Prolactin is secreted from the pituitary gland in response to eating, mating, estrogen treatment, ovulation and nursing. Prolactin is secreted in pulses in between these events. Prolactin plays an essential role in metabolism, regulation of the immune system and pancreatic development.
Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid. In male humans, testosterone plays a key role in the development of male reproductive tissues such as testes and prostate, as well as promoting secondary sexual characteristics such as increased muscle and bonemass, and the growth of body hair. In addition, testosterone is involved in health and well-being,and the prevention of osteoporosis. Insufficient levels of testosterone in men may lead to abnormalities including frailty and bone loss.
SHBG is a glycoprotein that binds to the two sex hormones: androgen and estrogen. Other steroid hormones such as progesterone, cortisol, and other corticosteroids are bound by transcortin.
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a hormone produced by both men and women. It’s released by the adrenal glands, and it contributes to male traits. The adrenal glands are small, triangular-shaped glands located above the kidneys.
The symptoms of DHEA deficiency can include:
- prolonged fatigue
- poor concentration
- a diminished sense of well-being
Free Androgen Index
Free Androgen Index or FAI is a ratio used to determine abnormal androgenstatus in humans. The ratio is the total testosterone level divided by the sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) level, and then multiplying by a constant, usually 100.
Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones. In the early fasting state, cortisol stimulates gluconeogenesis (the formation of glucose), and activates antistress and anti-inflammatory pathways.In the late fasting state, the function of cortisol changes slightly and increases glycogenesis. This response allows the liver to take up glucose not being used by the peripheral tissue and turn it into liver glycogen stores to be used if the body moves into the starvation state.
IGF-1 is produced primarily by the liver as an endocrine hormone as well as in target tissues in a paracrine/autocrine fashion. Production is stimulated by growth hormone (GH) and can be retarded by undernutrition, growth hormone insensitivity, lack of growth hormone receptors, or failures of the downstream signaling pathway post GH receptor
Stress & Ageing Markers - Men
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